Plumbing system is based on few concepts like gravity, pressure and water level. If you know these concepts you can make dozen of optimization in your plumbing system.
The plumbing system has two sub-system in which one is responsible to take Waste water out and another is to take Freshwater in.
Fresh Water In:
The fresh water that comes into your building needs to be in certain pressure to allow it to travel upward, around corners and wherever it is needed. Also, faucets and appliances need certain pressure at its end for its proper functioning so that we have a quality experience.
So, we need to maintain proper water level so that every faucet gets required pressure. Main Ball Valve need to be installed so that we can shutoff water supply during plumbing emergency.
Also, most mixtures must have their individual ball valve to allow their individual maintenance during emergency rather than shutting whole water supply.
Now we have our cold water needs. However process is a bit different for hot water supply. Fresh Water Supply first enters your water heater and then from outlet of heater goes to faucets and appliances wherever hot water is needed. A separate pipe line must be made from the outlet of heater to required faucet and appliances.
Waste Water Out:
Whether we have a septic system in our building or a direct sewer system, the waste water out principle is same. Drainage system is not dependent in pressure like supply system as they don’t need to feed any fixture. Only thing we need to consider is proper flow of the drainage without any blocks to outside Sewer system.
The system may sound very easy but there are many things to consider while building a drainage system like pipe fittings to be used, pipe slope, manholes, cleanouts, Vents and traps.
We always keep in mind that sewage must not be blocked in future and use fittings, pipe slope accordingly. Also, manholes and cleanouts are made wherever needed for easy future maintenance purpose.
Vents are made and sized properly not only for letting your bad smell from waste to go out but also for air supply to go in for waste to flow properly. Also, traps are used precisely so that bad smell doesn’t come out of your fixtures.
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